‘意象’ ‘舞踏譜’ [摘譯自"Hijikata Tatsumi and Ohno Kazuo]

※引自“Hijikata Tatsumi and Ohno Kazuo” (2006 : 頁52-54,頁57-59)


      An image is often understood in terms of visual material, pictures, photographs, and figures in paintings, something discernable to the eye, but images are actually much more than this, as the study of butoh reveals—especially the buto-fu of Hijikata. His imagery is drawn from a wide variety of sensory sources, including the appeal of words. “Images,” as the word suggests, come from and also reflect the imagination. Finally in performance, the dance we see and relate to is itself composed of images, movement images, sometimes called dance images, phrases and larger gestalts of movement resulting from choreography or improvisation—as explored extensively in Dance and the Lived Body (Fraleigh, Part 3, “The Dance Image,” 1987). There are many layers of images in butoh, those that inspire the dance, those that animate its metamorphosis, and the actual images that strike the eye and mind of the audience.
      對於意象的理解常常是從視覺物件的角度,即圖片,攝影,畫作裡的形體,某種眼睛能辨識之物,然而就如舞踏研究所顯示的,意象事實上遠大於此—尤其是土方的舞踏譜。他的意象汲取自大量不同類別的知覺來源,也包括文字的藉助。“意象”  (images),如同這個字已經表明的,既來自也反映著想像(imagination)。最後到了演出,我們看見且連繫上的舞蹈本身就是由意象所組成,即動作形象,有時稱為舞蹈意象,語彙,和出自編排或即興的較長動作結構—這在舞蹈與活過的身體裡已有廣泛地探索(第三部分“舞蹈意象”,作者Fraleigh,1987年出版)。舞踏中存在著許多層面的意象,有的啟發了舞蹈,有的使其形態得到改變,也有的意象真實出現,震撼觀眾的雙眼和心靈。

      Nowhere in dance do we find such a rich exposition of imagery than in the work of Hijikata. Hijikata did not perform on stage after 1974. He concentrated on choreographing for others and also worked extensively with Ashikawa Yoko. Gradually he recorded his original dance notation, or system of butoh-fu—sixteen scrapbooks of verbal and visual images for dance based on his experiments with surrealist strategies from poetry, painting, and literature. Kurt Wurmli who has studied the scrapbooks extensively says the eclectic assemblage of visual images in Hijikata’s collection range from prehistoric cave paintings to twentieth century street graffiti, including works from all five continents. “The images are partially or entirely cut out and glued-in reproductions of works of art, nature, architecture, and science in the form of photocopies, prints or hand drawings. In all, they make up a collection of over 500 individual works” (‘Images of Dance and the Dance of Images: A Research Report on Hijikata Tatsumi’s Butoh’(Wurmli): 7-8).
      舞蹈世界中沒有任何地方可以找到像在土方的作品裡如此豐富的意象闡述。1974年後土方就不再上台表演。他專注於替其他人編舞並頻繁地與芦川羊子一起工作。逐漸地他記錄下他自己原創的舞蹈記譜,或者可稱作舞踏譜體系—16本剪貼簿包含了供舞蹈所用的語言和視覺意象,這些是建立在他對來自於詩,繪畫,文學,超現實主義者的措施和方法所作的實驗。全面研究過這些剪貼本的Kurt Wurmli說,土方所蒐集的那些不拘一格並匯集起來的視覺意象,範圍可從史前洞穴壁畫到二十世紀的街頭塗鴉,包括了所有五個大陸的作品。“這些意象是將關於藝術、自然、建築、和科學的文件圖片,以複印、印記、和手繪的形式,部分或全部地剪出與貼入後的重製。整個來說,它們是由超過5百件的工作成果所彙集而成。(‘舞蹈的意象與意象的舞蹈:關於土方巽舞踏的研究報告’(Wurmli),頁7-8)

      Hijikata’s imagistic style of recording dance provides a basis for present-day understanding of the origins of butoh in surrealist imagery. Wurmli reports that Hijikata did not date his work; thus, the exact time period and order of the books are uncertain. Hijikata started the butoh-fu in the early I 970s and finished them in 1985. They contain Hijikata’s writing, his marks, and the collected visual images. The text itself is handwritten in poetry and phrases, and most of it relates to the visual materials. The marks, mostly in pencil, are lines, circles, arrows and the like, used to emphasize parts of a visual image (Ibid.). We can see from this that Hijikata’s butoh-fu is a collection of highly complex verbal and visual images intended as an illustrated poetic guide for dance movements. For the most part, the images themselves (also called butohfu) do not show exact postures or movements, but leave this open to discovery—except in a few cases where actual photographs of dance are shown.

Hijikata's Butoh-fu“Dribbling Candy”. Courtesy Hijikata Tatsumi Archive (Hijikata and Ohno p53)2
土方的舞踏譜 “糖果溶化".    版權:土方巽資料庫


                  The essential thing in dance is that it haunts and clings to your body the same way that your lifelong experience has.
                                                                                                                        (Ohno Kazuo)

      As we noted earlier, a butoh-fu is not a set of instructions or method on how to do butoh. The literal meaning of fu is a chronicle or history, therefore any dancers’ spoken or written chronicles of their process, in whatever form, is their butoh-fu. According to the Ohno Kazuo Archive in Yokohama, there are a very large number of Ohno’s butoh-fu in existence currently being categorized at the archive. The archive is not yet open to the public.
      就像我們先前指出的,舞踏譜並非一套關於如何作出舞踏的指示或方法。譜的字面意義是編年或歷史,所以任何舞者對他們的歷程所說出或寫下的記事,不論任何形式,就是他們的舞踏譜。據橫濱的大野一雄資料庫(Ohno Kazuo Archive)所言,存在著非常大量的大野舞踏譜,正於資料庫裡分類編目中。資料庫目前尚未對大眾開放。

      Ohno’s words in butoh-fu and workshop talks are in essays, poems, and notes that he prepares for performances and workshops.

                       When does it come?
                       Where does it come from?
                       Whose hand?
                       The invisible hand that respond to words
                       (Essence of eroticism).

                                                     Ohno’s butoh-fu for “Episode for the Creation of Genesis"
                                                               –Part of his performance in The Dead Sea(1985)

                                                                                大野一雄為"創世紀" —作品"死海"

         The butoh-fu above represents the type of short poems Ohno writes on the blackboard or pieces of paper in his dance studio when he is practicing for a dance. He jots words down in the form of ideas and rough sketches on specific themes during the course of his daily life as they come to him.

Ohno's Butoh-fu, a photograph of his calligraphy and marks. Courtesy Ohno Kazuo Aechive (Hijikata and Ohno p58)
大野的舞踏譜 ,他的親手筆跡和記號. 版權:大野一雄資料庫



曾為劇場表演者 現為奧修門徒 1994年首見大野一雄與大野慶人的舞踏 自2007年至日本向慶人先生學習



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